John B. Watson Misrepresented

The following is a quote as it appears in Steven Pinker’s 1994 book The Language Instinct and in his 2002 book The Blank Slate:

“I should like to go one step further now and say, ‘Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select—doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.”

Here is the original quote, as it appears in Watson’s 1924 book Behaviorism:

“I should like to go one step further now and say, ‘Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select—doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years. Please note that when this experiment is made I am to be allowed to specify the way the children are to be brought up and the type of world they have to live in.”

e-Commerce Self Quiz Chapter 4


Question

1 of 40
A cookie is a data file that is placed on a user’s hard drive by a remote Web server only when the user gives full consent to collect information about the user’s activities at a site.
True
False

Question

2 of 40
The purpose of an EC customer behavior model is to help firms understand how a consumer makes a purchasing decision to be able to influence that decision through advertising or other marketing methods.
True
False

Question

3 of 40
In the consumer decision-making process, the buyer is the person who ultimately makes the buying decision.
True
False

Question

4 of 40
By increasing customer loyalty, EC companies can achieve each of the following benefits except:
lower marketing and advertising costs.
higher warranty claims costs.
lower transaction costs.
lower resistance to competitors.

Question

5 of 40
One of the major challenges of one-to-one advertising is ________, or the flooding of users with junk e-mail, banners, pop-ups, and so on.
interstitial ads
permission marketing
spamming
behavioral targeting

Question

6 of 40
Customer loyalty is important because it is a customer’s deep commitment to buying a product or service consistently in the future, thereby causing repetitive same-brand or same brand-set purchasing.
True
False

Question

7 of 40
The introduction of EC has:
decreased customer loyalty because customers can more easily shop, compare, and switch to different vendors.
increased customer loyalty because customers don’t have time to shop around.
increased the cost of acquiring and retaining customers.
decreased advertising and promotion costs.

Question

8 of 40
Banner exchanges are markets where companies can trade or exchange placement of banner ads on each other’s Web sites.
True
False

Question

9 of 40
________, such as concerts and videos, can generate tremendous public excitement and bring huge crowds to a Web site.
Live Web events
Webcasting
Phone casting
Mobile casting

Question

10 of 40
One of the major objectives of universal services is to increase customer loyalty through individual personalization.
True
False

Question

11 of 40
One of the keys to building effective customer relationships is to understand intelligent agents.
True
False

Question

12 of 40
Personal characteristics of customers, such as age and income, are independent variables, which are uncontrollable variables for EC companies.
True
False

Question

13 of 40
Attracting and retaining loyal customers is the most important issue for e-tailers because customer loyalty can lower marketing and advertising costs, transaction costs, customer turnover expenses, and failure costs such as warranty claims.
True
False

Question

14 of 40
Segmentation refers to the matching of services, products, and advertising content to individuals and their preferences.
True
False

Question

15 of 40
All of the following describe click-through rate except:
It is the ratio between the number of clicks on a banner ad and the number of times it is seen by viewers.
It is a request for data from a Web page or file.
It measures the success of a banner in attracting visitors to click on the ad.
It may be less than or equal to the conversion rate.

Question

16 of 40
Ways in which user profiles are typically generated by EC businesses include all of the following except:
asking users to fill in a questionnaire
using cookies, spyware, or Web bugs to observe what people are doing online
using customer segmentation to identify customers’ preferences
basing them on what customers have purchased online before

Question

17 of 40
Procter & Gamble (P&G) used the Internet in the new product development of Whitestrips, a teeth-brightening product. Based on this experience, P&G:
decided to add Internet research to its traditional marketing test model.
could not determine the target market segments for the Whitestrips.
learned that the cost of online surveys was about the same as similarly sized telephone surveys, but online surveys expedited research considerably.
reduced the time-to-market from concept to market launch by approximately two years.

Question

18 of 40
The world’s largest online movie rental subscription company, Netflix, implemented intelligent agents in its movie recommendation service called CineMatch to help customers select movies they would like to watch and to better manage its inventory.
True
False

Question

19 of 40
Spyware is tiny graphics files embedded in email messages and in Web sites that transmit information about users and their movements to a Web server.
True
False

Question

20 of 40
Mass marketing is an approach to marketing that treats each customer in a unique way such as fitting advertising to the customer’s profile and needs.
True
False

Question

21 of 40
The popularity of Apple’s iPhone and Application Store has made ________ important to advertisers, who see social networking widgets, restaurant locators, mobile games, and other applications as prime targets.
stickiness
direct marketing
mobile advertising
banner ads

Question

22 of 40
An Internet merchant can increase its trustworthiness by using each of the following except:
a vendor evaluation, such as BBB Online
co-branding
simple design
a convenient return policy

Question

23 of 40
The first step in the buying decision process is product evaluation and comparison.
True
False

Question

24 of 40
Satisfaction is one of the most important consumer reactions in the B2C online environment.
True
False

Question

25 of 40
Word-of-mouth marketing by which customers promote a product or service by telling others via social networks or other means is referred to as:
affiliate marketing.
viral marketing.
target marketing.
search engine marketing.

Question

26 of 40
A(n) ________ is someone whose advice or view carries some weight in making a final purchasing decision.
initiator
influencer
decider
buyer

Question

27 of 40
The use of cookies:
is one of the most controversial issues in EC.
has not helped Internet marketers target their ads.
is a widely used method for mass marketing.
is being replaced by adware and spyware programs.

Question

28 of 40
How many Apple Application Store downloads were made by users in the five months spanning July 2008 to December 2008?
100 million
25 million
5 million
1 million

Question

29 of 40
Web site content is especially important to increase stickiness because:
customers are expensive to acquire.
Web sites are expensive to maintain.
competitors are always attempting to steal away customers.
of Internet-accessible mobile devices.

Question

30 of 40
Social factors such as word-of-mouth play an influential role in EC shopping or online gaming.
True
False

Question

31 of 40
In the consumer purchasing decision process, virtual catalogs and links to external sources support the evaluation and selection phase of that process.
True
False

Question

32 of 40
Customer loyalty can lead to enhanced resistance to competitors, a decrease in price sensitivity, and an increase in favorable word-of-mouth.
True
False

Question

33 of 40
What is the key problem that biometric marketing is intended to solve?
knowing the identity of the actual shopper
improving accuracy of the shopper’s data
increasing the speed of order processing
creating a loyalty program

Question

34 of 40
Banner advertising on Web sites helps trigger a realization that there is a gap between reality and a desired state, which occurs in the ________ stage of the EC purchase decision-making process.
need identification or recognition
information search
evaluation
product or merchant brokering

Question

35 of 40
The ethical issue raised by profiling customers too precisely is:
spamming.
invasion of privacy.
theft of intellectual property.
security.

Question

36 of 40
As the volume of customers, products, vendors, and information increases, it becomes uneconomical or impossible for customers to consider all relevant information and available products/services. The practical solution to handling such information overload is to:
use permission marketing.
use software or intelligent agents.
increase the use of ad agencies.
design Web sites with minimal content.

Question

37 of 40
Marketing and advertising approaches have evolved from mass marketing to market segmentation to one-to-one marketing. This evolution occurred because:
the marketing focus shifted from customers to products.
companies sought to decrease the number of marketing campaigns.
concerns about privacy have diminished.
the Internet enabled companies to better communicate with customers and understand their needs and buying habits.

Question

38 of 40
Personalization is the matching of services or products with large groups of customer segments.
True
False

Question

39 of 40
Paws ‘n Tails is an online pet shop that wants to influence what its customers buy and build effective customer relationships and loyalty. What is the key to influencing behavior and building these relationships?
understanding consumer online behavior and then influencing it through advertising and promotions
understanding competitors’ pricing strategy and then undercutting it
identifying the wants and needs of major customer segments
suggesting as many products as possible to online shoppers as soon as they visit the EC site

Question

40 of 40
One problem with Web analytics, Web mining, clickstream data, and so on is that you observe and follow a computer without knowing who is actually moving the mouse, which can be solved with biometric marketing.
True
False

e-Commerce Self Quiz Chapter 10

1 of 40
The success and security of EC depend on the ________ of information and the business Web site.
encryption, functionality, and privacy
quality, reliability, and speed
authentication, authorization, and nonrepudiation
confidentiality, integrity, and availability

2 of 40
Digital signatures or digital certificates:
are used to validate the sender and time stamp of the transaction so it cannot be later claimed that the transaction was unauthorized or invalid.
have been compromised by phishers and spammers.
provide complete confidence that the transactions are secure.
Both A and B

3 of 40
A botnet is a:
collection of a few hundred hijacked Internet computers that have been set up to forward traffic, including spam and viruses, to other computers on the Internet.
piece of software code that inserts itself into a host or operating system to launch DOS attacks.
piece of code in a worm that spreads rapidly and exploits some known vulnerability.
coordinated network of computers that can scan and compromise other computers and launch DOS attacks.

4 of 40
Protection of the U.S. computer networks is in the hands of the Department of the Interior (DOI).
True
False

5 of 40
Seattle’s Northwest Hospital and Medical Center was attacked by malware that was able to enter their network through a Windows flaw.
True
False

6 of 40
Security functions or characteristics of digital signatures include all of the following except:
A digital signature is the electronic equivalent of a personal signature, which can be forged.
Digital signatures are based on public keys for authenticating the identity of the sender of a message or document.
Digital signatures ensure that the original content of an electronic message or document is unchanged.
Digital signatures are portable.

7 of 40
Which of the following statements about hardware and software security defenses is false?
Hardware and software security defenses protect against irresponsible business practices or corrupt management.
There is no single hardware or software solution appropriate for all companies.
If firewalls and antivirus software are not upgraded and monitored constantly, they will not remain useful.
After the EC security program and policies are defined and risk assessment completed, then the software and hardware needed to support and enforce them can be put in place.

8 of 40
Active tokens are storage devices (e.g., magnetic strip) that contain a secret code used in a two-factor authentication system.
True
False

9 of 40
Which of the following is not an underlying reason why a comprehensive EC security strategy is needed?
The Internet was designed for maximum efficiency without regard for its security or users with malicious intent.
The shift is toward profit-motivated crimes.
Managers treat EC security as a process.
Many companies fail to implement basic IT security management best practices, business continuity plans, and disaster recovery plans.

10 of 40
The process of determining what the authenticated entity is allowed to access and what operations it is allowed to perform is known as:
integrity.
availability.
authentication.
nonrepudiation.
Authorization.

11 of 40
Risk creates vulnerability, which is the probability that this weakness will be known and used.
True
False

12 of 40
Administrators need to check the integrity of programs and patches that are installed; and new programs and tools should be installed in a test environment before putting them into a production environment.
True
False

13 of 40
Assurance that stored data has not been modified without authorization or a message that was sent is the same message that was received is referred to as:
integrity.
availability.
authentication.
nonrepudiation.

14 of 40
The ________ translates or converts domain names to their IP addresses.
IPS
DOS
VPN
DNS

15 of 40
Social engineering is a type of technical attack to circumvent security measures by manipulating people to get them to reveal crucial authentication information.
True
False

It is a type of nontechnical attack.

16 of 40
An IP address uniquely identifies each computer connected to a network or the Internet.
True
False

17 of 40
According to the CSI 2008 Security Survey, the most expensive computer security incidents were those involving ________.
financial fraud
viruses and worms
unintentional human errors
targeted attacks

18 of 40
Acceptable use policies (AUP) inform users of their responsibilities when a cyberattack or network intrusion has occurred.
True
False

19 of 40
The ________ was invented by Netscape to use standard certificates for authentication and data encryption to ensure privacy or confidentiality.
certificate authority
public key infrastructure
secure socket layer
digital envelope

20 of 40
An EC security strategy requires multiple layers of defense against risks from malware, fraudsters, customers, and employees.
True
False

21 of 40
Biometric systems are authentication systems that identify a person by measurement of a biological characteristic, such as fingerprints, iris patterns, facial features, or voice.
True
False

22 of 40
Public key infrastructure (PKI) is an authentication method that:
has become the cornerstone for secure e-payments and intranet applications.
is based on the Data Encryption Standard, which is the standard symmetric encryption algorithm supported by U.S. government agencies.
encrypts and decrypts large amounts of data effectively.
uses encryption keys ranging from 64 bits to 128 bits.

23 of 40
Due care in EC is those actions that a company is reasonably expected to take based on the risks affecting its business and transactions.
True
False

24 of 40
Shoppers can rely on online fraud protection provided by credit card issuers to protect them from identity theft.
True
False

25 of 40
According to the CSI 2008 Security Survey, the most expensive security incidents were those involving viruses.
True
False

26 of 40
Fingerprint scanners, facial recognition systems, and voice recognition all are examples of ________ that recognize a person by some physical trait.
biometric systems
human firewalls
intrusion detection systems
access control lists

27 of 40
The Internet, or more specifically the Internet and network protocols, was never intended for use by untrusted users or components.
True
False

28 of 40
Hackers are able to easily gain access to a network when IS staff do not ensure that all traffic into and out of a network passes through a firewall.
True
False

29 of 40
Because the consequences of weak network security can be severe, it is necessary that senior management have a basic understanding of best practices in network risk management.
True
False

30 of 40
The incidence of online fraud and identify theft would increase for each of the following reasons except:
There is growth in EC sales and the number of shoppers with higher incomes.
Information is a valuable form of currency.
Hackers are increasingly motivated by fame and notoriety.
Scammers are outsourcing work to programmers to gain control of computers or wireless networks.

31 of 40
All of the following are characteristics of access control except:
Access control determines which persons, programs, or machines can legitimately use a network resource and which resources he, she, or it can use.
Access control lists (ACLs) define users’ rights, such as what they are allowed to read, view, write, print, copy, delete, execute, modify, or move.
All resources need to be considered together to identify the rights of users or categories of users.
After a user has been identified, the user must be authenticated.

Each resource needs to be considered separately. (pages 451 and 452).

32 of 40
The attacks and defense of computers can affect individuals, organizations, countries, or the entire Web.
True
False

33 of 40
The protection of information systems against unauthorized access to or modification of information that is stored, processed, or being sent over a network is referred to as:
information assurance.
data integrity.
information integrity.
human firewall.

34 of 40
The PCI data security standard was developed by the FTC to protect against credit card fraud and identity theft.
True
False

35 of 40
The assurance that an online customer or trading partner cannot falsely deny their purchase or transaction is referred to as:
integrity.
availability.
authentication.
nonrepudiation.

36 of 40
The key reasons why EC criminals cannot be stopped include each of the following except:
Sophisticated hackers use browsers to crack into Web sites.
Strong EC security makes online shopping inconvenient and demanding on customers.
There is a lack of cooperation from credit card issuers and foreign ISPs.
Online shoppers do not take necessary precautions to avoid becoming a victim.

37 of 40
An EC security strategy and program begins with:
the commitment and involvement of executive management.
layers of hardware and software defenses.
information security policies and training.
secure design of EC applications.

38 of 40
Authentication can be based on the public key infrastructure (PKI) which is based on:
message digest.
plain text.
encryption.
key space.

39 of 40
________ systems are highly useful for both law enforcement and for law breaking, for example, by providing a means to obtain passwords or encryption keys and thus bypassing other security measures.
Biometric
Keystroke logging
Access control
Intrusion detection

40 of 40
Which is not an advantage of virtual private networks (VPN) for data communications?
They are less expensive than private leased lines because they use the public Internet to carry information.
They ensure the confidentiality and integrity of the data transmitted over the Internet without requiring encryption.
They can reduce communication costs dramatically because VPN equipment is cheaper than other remote solutions.
Remote users can use broadband connections rather than make long distance calls to access an organization’s private network.